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Glossary
Glossary Abbreviations

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  Glossary   S

Sacrifice area/site
In range management, a site allowed to be overgrazed to obtain efficient overall use of the management area. In cultural resource management, it may refer to a site intentionally sacrificed to extensive public use in order to preserve the larger cultural area.
Sanitation salvage
The removal of dead, damaged or susceptible trees primarily to prevent the spread of pests or disease and promote forest health.
Sapling
A loose term for a young tree more than a few feet tall and an inch or so in diameter.
Sawtimber
Trees that are nine inches in diameter at breast height or larger that can be made into lumber.
Scoping
Part of the NEPA process to determine public opinion, receive comments and suggestions, and determine issues during the environmental analysis process. It may involve public meetings, telephone conversations, or letters.
Section 318 sales
A 1989 congressional rider, pushed by Hatfield, that exempted 7.2 billion board feet of timber from environmental rules and citizen appeals. All but about 470 mmbf was deforested. The remaining sales were so detrimental to the last habitats of many species (salmon, owls, murrellets being a few), they were withdrawn. Modifications began to make them less damaging. It is these 470 mmbf that congress recently again mandated their deforestation in the salvage logging rider, without their modifications.
Second growth
Forest growth that is established after some kind of interference with the previous forest crop, such as clear cutting.
Seed tree harvest
Removal of the mature timber crop from an area in one cut, except for a certain number of seed bearers. See shelterwood.
Seedlings
Young trees under 4.5 feet in height.
Sensitive species
Plant or animal species which are susceptible to habitat changes or impacts from activities. The official designation is made by the USDA Forest Service at the Regional level and is not part of the designation of Threatened or Endangered Species made by the US Fish and Wildlife Service.
Seral
The stage of succession of a plant or animal community that is transitional. If left alone, the seral stage will give way to another plant or animal community that represents a further stage of succession.
Shelterwood
A cutting method used in a mature stand, designed to establish a new crop under the protection of the old. Most trees are removed, except for about 6 large trees per acre. These remaining trees are then harvested in about 5 years, after seedlings are established. The end result looks like a clear-cut.
Silviculture
The art and science that promotes the growth of single trees and the forest as a biological unit.
Site preparation
The general term for removing unwanted vegetation, slash, roots, and stones from a site before reforestation. Prescribed fire is usually used (slash and burn).
Site tree height
The height of the average dominate tree in an area that is over 200 years old. The tree should be disease and defect free, so in general, it is the height of one of the best trees in an area. The calculation of the site tree height now is very important since it determines how much buffer width to leave next to riparian areas.
Size class
One of the three intervals of tree stem diameters used to classify timber in the Forest Plan data base. The size classes are: Seedling/Sapling (less than 5 inches in diameter); Pole Timber (5 to 7 inches in diameter); Sawtimber (greater than 7 inches in diameter)
Skidding
Hauling logs by sliding, not on wheels, from stump to a collection point. This produces skid roads.
Skyline logging
A logging system used to remove timber from steep slopes. Logs are brought up-slope on a suspended cable, or skyline. Since the weight of the log is completely or partially supported by the cable, there is slightly less impact.
Slash
The debris left on the ground after timber cutting or left after a storm, fire, or other event. Slash includes unused logs, uprooted stumps, broken or uprooted stems, branches, bark, etc.
Slump
A landslide where the underlying rock masses tilt back as they slide from a cliff or escarpment. Slumps are sometimes caused by clear cutting on unstable soils.
Snag
A standing dead tree. Snags are important as habitat for a variety of wildlife species and their prey. Most snags are felled in harvest operations.
Soil compaction
The reduction of soil volume. For instance, the weight of heavy equipment on soils can compact the soil and thereby change it in some ways, such as in its ability to absorb water. Compacted soil is a major problem, taking thousands of acres permanently out of wildlife habitat. Trees will not grow in compacted soil.
Special use permit
A permit issued to an individual or group by the USDA Forest Service for use of National Forest land for a special purpose.
Stand
A group of trees that occupies a specific area and is similar in species, age, and condition.
Standards and guidelines
Requirements found in a Forest Plan which impose limits on natural resource management activities, generally for environmental protection.
Stocking level
The number of tree in an area as compared to the desirable number of trees for best results, such as maximum wood production.
Stumpage price
The monetary value of a forest.
Successional stage
A stage of development of a plant community as it moves from bare ground to climax. The grass-forb stage of succession precedes the woody shrub stage.
Succession
The natural replacement, in time, of one plant community with another. Conditions of the prior plant community (or successional stage) create conditions that are favorable for the establishment of the next stage.
Sustainability
The ability of an ecosystem to maintain ecological processes and functions, biological diversity, and productivity over time.
Sustainable
The yield of a natural resource that can be produced continually from generation to generation, without depleting the resource.
Sustained yield
Term used in the O&C Act of 1937. The yield that can be produced continuously by converting all the land to a tree plantation and logged rotationally.

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